In order to attain sustainable development, societies have to change their way of living. Innovations such as organic agriculture have an important impact on the environment : it raises awareness among the population, …Its aim is to develop an agriculture that doesn’t harm the environment but preserves it for the future generation. Island of Cuba is 11000km2 and 61% of its area is used for agriculture. After the war of independence the rural areas were destroyed and its population flee away : only 10% of the area was used for agriculture, the main crop being sugar cane. Gradually, rural population increased and in 1959, 50% of the population considered as rural workers. Since 1959, different economic politicies and social transformations have been started. The first Law of Land reform was instaured in 1959 and had a great impact on the agricultural structure of the country : the full employment of the natural and human resources, the creation of production cooperatives, the diversification and the increase to agricultural production… Everything for the needs to the local population. Another aim of the land reform mouvment was to develop the cooperative for the collective treatment of natural resources which was favourable to sustainable development. New ideas were proposed as intensive agriculture linked to new technologies… But unfortunately agriculture is not an industrial activity. This change has created big problems like deforestation or a loss of fertility and erosion ! It is essential to create small units with few means by using the supplies at hand to the maximum ! Tranformations for agricultural areas such as use of organic and biological fertilizers, integrated treatment against plagues and diseases, use animal haulage, the association and crop rotation and conservation and rehabilitation of grounds. Sugar cane represents 30% of the agricultural area and represents more than 50% exports. Sugar cane is the most important for export (with tabacco and citrus fruits). Today 200000 people participate in urban agriculture. The production of vegetables and condiments is the most important crop and occupies 18000 hectares (garden, intensive kitchen garden, courts…). Thanks to this production, people can solve big medical problems and support the consumption to the good food. Urban production allow the creation of jobs, particularly for the old person. Urban agriculture, everybody participates : women, teenagers, etc. This sort of production has become more and more important and now it’s not for subsistence farming but for marketing !!!